As we all know, HIV primarily attacks the immune system of the human body. It ceases the ability to fight with diseases thereby making a person permanently sick and weak. The epidemic was first identified in the United States of America in 1980. The disease has killed more than 35 million people to date. There is no particular evidence that HIV can be cured. However, clinical research and studies can help one to live a healthy life. Recently, antiretroviral treatments are known to eliminate the progression of the disease and help the sufferers to live a normal life.
Great attempts have been made to prevent the disease. Thanks to –
- Public health administrator
- governmental Agencies
- community organization
- HIV activist
- pharmaceutical companies
As a possible cure, HIV vaccines could have already saved the lives of millions of people. However, there is no specific vaccination available to help people in fighting with the disease. According to a study published in 2009, an experimental vaccination prevented the disease by up to 31% in the new cases. Later on, the research was stopped because of dangerous side effects.
National institute of allergy and infection diseases stopped a Clinical Research that was being carried to invent HVTN 505 vaccination for fighting with AIDS. The study was initiated in 2013 and the data indicated that the research carried out to invent the vaccine was not so worthwhile to fight with the disease.
Each year there are some of the Other types of discoveries taking place around the world. During 2019, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh came up with a promising solution to treat HIV AIDS.
- The researchers could engineer certain immune system cells that could eventually convert into HIV cells.
- Another study indicated the identification of immune system cells that could attack and remove HIV cells.
The clinical trials are still in progress and it is expected that the future inventions will help the sufferers to fight the disease.
Precautions to be taken during HIV AIDS
There is no vaccination or special medicine invented to treat the transmission of HIV AIDS disease. Mainly, the ailment is stimulated through the exchange of fluids that can take place in the number of ways –
- Infected needles and syringes – a person who is affected with HIV virus can easily transmit the disease by sharing needles and syringes. Even if there is no blood visible on the surface, it still has an HIV virus.
- Sexual contact – having sexual contact with HIV infected people is one of the most prominent ways to induce the disease. The HIV virus can easily get into the blood of the person through semen, vaginal or anal secretions. The risk of transferring the HIV virus is highest during sexual contact.
- Breastfeeding and pregnancy – mothers infected with HIV AIDS can transfer the virus to the baby before or after taking birth.
How to avoid HIV disease?
- Get the HIV test done of the person with whom you are planning to have sex.
- Use barriers like condoms while getting indulged in oral and vaginal sex. Use the precautionary measures correctly.
- Make sure that you always use a sterilized or a new needle that has not been used before.
What we refer to by pre-exposure prophylaxis is the routine treatment that is meant for the people who have a possibility of suffering from HIV. The medicine can eliminate the chances of the disease getting worse. It is also a beneficial method to prevent the transmission of HIV disease. people who are at maximum risk of HIV AIDS include-
- Homosexual men are involved in having sex without using condoms.
- People who do not use protection like condoms are at maximum risk of HIV AIDS.
- Anyone who has used HIV infected needles or drugs in the last 6 months.
- Women who conceived from HIV positive partners.
Proper medications can reduce the risk of HIV transmission by up to 99%. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is an effective method to end the possibilities of risk. Anyone who is suffering from HIV disease must practice preventive measures.
A proper combination of an emergency drug is given to the person who is exposed to the HIV virus. Health providers usually initiate post-exposure prophylaxis in the following cases-
- In case the protection barrier broke or no protection was used at all while having sex with the HIV infected person.
- A person who has been sexually assaulted
- A person who has used needles from an HIV infected person.
Post-exposure prophylaxis is used as an emergency method to prevent the disease. It starts within 72 hours after the exposure takes place. The treatment method involves giving antiretroviral therapy to the suffering for almost a month.
Identifying HIV AIDS disease is one of the most important steps to eliminate transmission. A division of the United Nations suggests that around 25% of sufferers worldwide don’t even know that they have been infected with the disease. There are several methods to diagnose HIV tests that include HIV screening and blood tests. In fact, HIV tests can be taken from The Saliva or secretion from the infected person. The results can be known within 20 minutes or even less.
How to treat HIV disease?
All the credit goes to advanced medical study and research. HIV is now manageable through antiretroviral treatments. The medications help people to live a normal life even when they are affected by the disease. The medications can also reduce the risk of disease transmission.
Following medications are used to cure HIV-
- Cd4 cells are responsible for protecting the human body against pathogens. The medications help in the Restoration of cd4 cells in maximum quantity possible.
- The viral load is the measure of HIV RNA present in the blood. Antiretroviral therapy can reduce the impact of the virus up to a negligible level.
Different types of HIV drugs include –
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that disable a protein HIV virus uses to multiply.
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase HIV virus to makes further copies of it.
- Protease inhibitor for the disabled the enzyme that the HIV virus needs to expand further.
- Fusion inhibitors prevent HIV from attacking cd4 cell
HIV drugs are prescribed with a motive to combat the impact of the disease and also to prevent them from transferring further. HIV drugs should be consistently taken in order to fight the disease and make it ineffective.
HIV positive people should always have a talk with the health care provider before changing the medicine or doing any such thing. Switching medicines on a random basis can result in treatment failure.
If it is unidentifiable it means it is non Transferable
Research and studies have finally proven that if one can maintain undetectable viral load using proper medications, it can easily eliminate the risk of HIV transfer . Several studies have effectively proven that people who were affected with an unidentifiable level with HIV AIDS did not transfer the disease during sexual activities.
- 90% of people who have HIV AIDS do not know their status.
- A maximum of the people diagnosed with HIV AIDS are on antiretroviral medication.
- 90% of sufferers receiving antiretroviral therapy need therapy to virally suppress the disease.
Researchers are working at the Sweat of their brows to come up with new treatments and drugs for curing the disease permanently. It is expected that the future will definitely come up with the development of vaccinations and therapies that can put an end to the HIV virus.
Current remedies are available for HIV –
- Monthly injections include a combination of drugs that effectively suppress the impact of the HIV virus.
The main reason why the HIV virus can impact the immune system is that the body cannot recognize cells that have HIV virus in them. Therefore, it is unable to eliminate those cells affecting the body.
A proper antiretroviral therapy doesn’t actually eliminate the HIV virus completely. It basically works towards destroying the potential HIV virus and helping the body to work better.
What is the current situation?
Researchers could not understand the basics of HIV three decades ago. Therefore, there was no method invented to treat the problem. Currently, advanced Technologies and medical capabilities have brought advanced treatments that can successfully decrease the progression of HIV to unidentifiable levels. Undetectable viral load improves the health of the person and also puts an end to the probability of transferring the disease.
Targeted drugs can prevent pregnant ladies from transferring the HIV virus to the fetus.
Every year hundreds of clinical trials and research help in the invention of better HIV treatment and medicines.