Article 3: LET’S LEARN THE CANCER LANGUAGE FIRST
There are over one hundred different sorts of cancer. Each sort of most cancers can have exceptional signs and symptoms, diagnostic checks and remedy alternatives. As a result, there are numerous terminologies and terms that are used to describe the type, symptoms and analysis of most cancers, and treatment strategies. It is frequently very perplexing in addition to irritating for the readers if too many clinical jargons or terminologies are utilized in describing this circumstance. It is difficult for readers to recognize the context of the subject or take any action, if required, after analyzing any article or book on cancers. As a result, the facts are often misinterpreted or now not absolutely understood or comprehended.
In this third article of my cancer series, I would really like to explain in quite simple terms all phrases and terminologies utilized in describing cancer. This will help readers in understanding the cancer phrases, types of cancer, commonplace prognosis and remedy terminologies, and the fitness employees worried in the management of most cancers. These are described in alphabetical order here.
Ablation: removal or destruction of frame part or tissue. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) therapy includes destroying most cancers tissue with heat. RFA is usually used within the remedy of lung, liver and kidney tumors.
Adenocarcinoma: cancer that starts from lining of internal organs or from skin
Adenoma: a non-cancer tumor that begins from glands
Adenopathy: swollen glands
Adjunct or adjunctive remedy: any other remedy used collectively with number one treatment. For example, radiotherapy is from time to time given after surgical procedure to treat cancer as adjunctive treatment.
Anal: of anus, anal cancer
Anorexia: an ordinary loss of appetite for food.
Asbestos: a collection of minerals which are determined by the shape of tiny fibers. It is used as insulation for warmth and fireplace in homes. Asbestos dust while breathed into the lungs can lead to most cancers of lungs and mesothelioma.
Asthenia: feeling or weak spot or loss of strength. This is common in overdue level cancer.
Astrocyte: that is a sort of cellular in the brain or spinal cord. Astrocytoma is a tumor that begins in astrocytes.
Asymptomatic: having no symptoms or signs of the disorder. Most cancers are asymptomatic within the early degrees.
Axillary lymph node dissection: removal of lymph nodes within the axilla. This may be accomplished within the remedy of breast most cancers.
B-cellular lymphoma: A form of most cancers that forms in B cells.
Barrett esophagus: this is a situation wherein the cells lining the decrease a part of the esophagus have modified or been replaced by abnormal cells that might lead to most cancers of the esophagus. The regurgitation of the contents of belly into the esophagus through the years can lead to Barrett’s esophagus.
Basal cells: they are small spherical cells located within the decrease part of the dermis. The most cancers that start in the basal cells is called basal cell most cancers or basal mobile carcinoma.
Benign: not cancerous, additionally called non-malignant. A malignant tumor is a cancerous boom.For instance, fibroadenoma is a benign tumor of the breast while as adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the breast.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: this is a non-cancerous situation of the prostate in which there may be an overgrowth of prostate tissue.
Biological remedy: this is a kind of treatment that uses substances crafted from living organisms or its products to enhance or restore the potential of the immune device to combat most cancers. Examples of organic agents encompass vaccines, interleukins, and monoclonal antibodies.
Biopsy: the removal of cells or tissues from the most cancers or suspected most cancers place for the exam via a pathologist. This is the surest way of diagnosing cancer.
Bone marrow ablation: This is a process that is used to ruin bone marrow using radiation or excessive doses of anti-cancer pills. It is performed before a bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant to kill cancer cells and bone marrow cells. This is a part of the extensive treatment of some leukemias.
Bone marrow aspiration: this is a manner wherein a small sample of bone marrow is removed with a huge needle and syringe and despatched to a laboratory to test for cancer cells. If a small sample of bone with bone marrow inner it is eliminated, it’s miles referred to as bone marrow biopsy.
Bone marrow transplantation: A technique that is used to update bone marrow that has been destroyed via remedy with excessive doses of anticancer pills or radiation.
Bone metastasis: cancer that has unfolded to bone from the original (number one) web site.
Brachytherapy: it’s also called internal radiotherapy. In this form of radiation therapy, radioactive substances sealed in needles, seeds, catheters or wires are placed without delay into or close to a tumor.
BRCA1 and BRCA2: those are genes on chromosomes 17 and thirteen respectively. An individual who is born with modifications (mutations) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has the better threat of having breast, ovaries and prostate cancer.
Breast reconstruction: a surgical procedure this is performed to rebuild the shape of the breast after doing away with the breast.
Breast self-exam: a lady examines her breasts to check for lumps or other modifications.
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Bronchogenic carcinoma: most cancers that begin within the tissue that lines or covers the airways of the lungs.
Cancer antigen 125 or CA-a hundred twenty-five: a substance that can be determined in excessive amounts inside the blood of sufferers with certain styles of cancer, such as ovarian cancer.
Cachexia: lack of muscle groups and body weight. Cachexia is seen in patients in overdue level most cancers.
Cancer: that is a circumstance in which there may be out of control department of odd cells.
Carcinogen: any substance that causes cancer, as an example, tobacco smoke incorporates extra than 50 carcinogens. Benzene is a carcinogen for leukemias.
Carcinogenesis: it’s miles a method whereby normal cells start changing into most cancers cells.
Carcinoma: it’s far the most cancers that start inside the skin or in tissues that line the internal organs of the body. For example squamous cell carcinoma of pores and skin or adenocarcinoma of gallbladder.
Carcinoma in situ: those are extraordinary cells (no longer most cancers) however can become most cancers cells and spread. They are also said to be in stage zero of most cancers, for instance, cervical carcinoma in situ.
Carcinoma of unknown primary (cup): on this kind of cancer, most cancers cells are located in a few components of the body, but the vicinity wherein the cancer cells first commenced to develop cannot be determined.
Cervical: of cervix, cervical most cancers
Colostomy: a colostomy is an operation that connects the colon to the outside of the frame thru the stomach wall.
Cryosurgery: that is a method wherein tissue is frozen to spoil abnormal cells. Liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide is used to freeze the tissues. It is also called cryotherapy or cryosurgical ablation.
Cyst: a sac in the body; cysts inside the ovary are very not unusual.
Cytotoxic capsules: capsules that kill cells.
Dilatation and curettage (D&C): that is a system wherein some tissues are removed from the liner of uterus or cervix. The cervix is first made large (dilated) with a device known as the dilator and some other tool referred to as curette is inserted into the uterus to take away the tissue. The eliminated tissue pattern can be sent to a laboratory to check for abnormal or cancer cells.
Debulking: this is the surgical elimination of as lots of a tumor as possible. This form of operation is commonly completed to alleviate signs and symptoms of cancer within the late tiers of the sickness.
Dermal: of pores and skin
Duodenal: of duodenum, duodenal cancer
Dysplastic nevi: it’s also referred to as extraordinary moles and will be inclined to become cancer.
Endometrial: of endometrium, endometrial most cancers
Esophageal: of esophagus, esophageal most cancers
Euthanasia: the intentional killing of a person to stop his/her sufferings. It is also referred to as mercy killing.
Excision: elimination by surgical treatment, for instance, excision of melanoma from the skin.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): that is an inherited situation in which many polyps shape at the internal partitions of the colon and rectum. FAP will increase the risk of colorectal cancers.
Familial peculiar multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM): that is an inherited circumstance that increases the hazard of cancer and pancreatic most cancers.
Familial cancer: cancers that arise in families more frequently than in fashionable population, as an instance, breast or colorectal cancer.
Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): this is a check to check for blood in the stool. This is a screening test for bowel cancer.
Fibroadenoma: that is a benign tumor of the breast.
Fibroid: a benign tumor that arises from lean muscle, for instance, uterine fibroid.
First-degree household: this includes the dad and mom, brothers, sisters, or children of an individual.
Fistula: an atypical opening or passage between two organs or among an organ and the surface of the body.
Follow-up: tracking a person’s health condition over time after the remedy.
Gardasil: this is a vaccine to prevent infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) sorts sixteen, 18, 6 and 11. It is used to save you cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers caused by those viruses.
Gastrectomy: an operation to dispose of all or a part of the belly.
Gastric: of belly, gastric cancer
Gastric feeding tube: a tube this is inserted via the nose, down the throat and esophagus, and into the stomach to provide liquid ingredients, beverages, and tablets. Feeding tubes are frequently inserted in patients who have mouth, throat, neck and esophageal cancers, especially when the surgical procedure is massive or blended with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Gastrotomy or PEG tube: this type of tube is inserted immediately into the belly thru a gap within the skin and belly wall. This kind of tube can be used for lengthy-term feeding.
Gene: genes are pieces of DNA and comprise the facts for making a specific protein this is surpassed from figure to offspring. Genetic way related to genes.
Genetic counselor: a fitness professional skilled in counseling on the genetic threat of illnesses. This might also contain discussing the individual’s personal and own family clinical history and can lead to genetic trying out.
Genetic testing: that is reading DNA to look for a genetic trade (mutation) that may suggest an increased risk for cancer.
Genital warts: those are raised growths inside the genital regions as a result of human papillomavirus HPV) contamination.
Germ cells: these are reproductive cells of the frame and encompass egg cells in women and sperm cells in guys. Tumors that arise from germ cells are called germ mobile tumors.
Gleason score: that is a system of grading prostate most cancers tissue primarily based on the way it seems below a microscope. Gleason rating variety from 2 to 10 and suggest how possible it is that a tumor will spread. A low Gleason score means the cancer tissue is much less probable to unfold while a high Gleason score way the cancer tissue is more likely to unfold.
Hematuria: blood inside the urine.
Hemoptysis: coughing out blood from the breathing tract.
Hemorrhoid: swollen blood vessel, typically visible inside the anus or the rectum
Hepatic: of liver, hepatic most cancers
Hepatoblastoma: it is a kind of liver cancer more not unusual in infants and children.
Hepatocellular carcinoma: that is the most commonplace type of liver most cancers.
Hereditary nonpolyposis colon most cancers (HNPCC): that is an inherited disease in which the affected people have a higher-than-regular chance of growing colorectal cancer.
High depth focused ultrasound: (HIFU): this is a procedure in which high-strength sound waves are aimed without delay on cancer or odd cells. These waves create warmth and kill the abnormal or cancer cells. Some types of prostate cancers are treated with HIFU.
Histology: the examination of cells and tissues beneath a microscope.
History: the signs and symptoms and signs the patient can also have for a specific ailment
Hysterectomy: an operation in which uterus and/or cervix are eliminated. When both uterus and the cervix are eliminated, it’s far referred to as a total hysterectomy. When only the uterus is removed, it is called a partial hysterectomy.
Immunotherapy: a treatment that enhances body’s immune machine to fight most cancers, as an instance, immunotherapy of bladder most cancers with BCG vaccine.
Implant: a substance or item this is positioned in the frame as the prosthesis, for example, breast implant after elimination of breast for cancer.
Intensity modulated radiation remedy (IMRT): this is a type of radiation therapy that makes use of computer-generated pics to show the scale and form of the tumor and direct skinny beams of radiation on the tumor from unique angles. This kind of radiation therapy reduces the damage to healthful tissue close to the tumor.
In situ: means ‘in its unique place’. Carcinoma in situ approach the strange cells are found simplest within the region they have been first formed and feature not spread close by.
The incidence of most cancers: the quantity of new instances of the most cancers identified each year.
Incision: a reduce made in the frame by means of a health practitioner to perform surgery.
Induction therapy: this is the preliminary treatment given to lessen cancer, as an instance, induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
Intrathecal chemotherapy: treatment in which anticancer tablets are injected into the fluid-filled space between the tissue that covers the brain and spinal wire.
Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy: remedy in which anticancer drugs are injected into a vein thru a cannula.
Labial: of lip
Laryngeal: of larynx, laryngeal most cancers
Laser surgical procedure: a surgical operation that makes use of excessive, slender beams of light to cut and break cancer tissue.
Leukemia: a most cancer that begins in blood-forming tissues which include bone marrow.
Lymphedema: a circumstance in which more lymph fluid builds up in tissues and causes swelling. This may be seen in the arm after breast operations.
Malignant: method cancerous. Malignancy is the term used to describe malignant cells that invade and spoil tissues.
Mass: a lump. It may be benign mass or malignant mass.
Mastectomy: elimination of breast.
Medical oncologist: a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating cancer the use of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, organic therapy, and focused remedy.
Mesothelioma: most cancers arising from the mesothelial lining of the pleura (protecting of lung)
Melanoma: the most cancers that start in melanocytes. The common website is the pores and skin however also can occur within the eyes.
Metastasis: the unfold of cancer from one part of the frame to some other. Cancer this is fashioned by cells which have unfolded from the authentic site is called metastatic most cancers or metastatic tumor.
Mucosal: of mucosa, mucosal lining of vagina
Mutate: manner ‘to exchange’. Mutation way alternate in DNA of a mobile.
Nasal: of nostril, nasal polyp
Neoplasia: it is an ordinary and uncontrolled cellular boom.
Neoplasm: it is a strange mass of tissue. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (most cancers).
Nodule: it’s miles a boom or lump or mass that may be benign or malignant.
Oncogene: this is a modified or mutated gene and can purpose increase of most cancers cells.
Oncology: the examination of most cancers
Oncologist: a health practitioner who makes a specialty of treating cancer.
Oral: of mouth, oral most cancers
Ovarian: of ovary, ovarian most cancers
Palliative therapy or treatment: this is the remedy given to alleviate the signs and symptoms and reduce the struggling of most cancers patient. Palliative care goals to enhance the first-class of the existence of sufferers.
Pancreatic: of pancreas, pancreatic cancer
Pharyngeal: of pharynx, pharyngeal most cancers
PAP test: that is a procedure in which cells are scraped from the cervix and tested beneath a microscope. This takes a look at is executed to discover most cancers or to come across modifications in the cervix which could result in cancer.
Partial: not entire, partly, for instance, partial gastrectomy because of this part of the belly is eliminated.
Penectomy: surgical procedure to cast off component or the whole penis
Penile: of penis, penile cancer
Plastic surgery: a surgical treatment that improves the arrival of body systems. The man or woman who does the plastic surgical procedure is referred to as plastic surgeon. Plastic surgeons are worried in lots of reconstruction surgeries of breast, vagina or face after cancer remedy.
Polyps: those are small growths that arise from the mucous membrane of colon and rectum.
Precancerous (premalignant) is a situation which could turn out to be most cancers later.
Proctoscopy: exam of the rectum using a proctoscope, inserted into the rectum.
Prognosis: the probably final results of cancer. The prognosis of maximum cancers in advanced level is bad.
Prophylactic surgical treatment: this is a surgical operation to remove a part of a body or organ without signs of most cancers however in an try and save you the improvement of most cancers in that organ in future. For example, prophylactic mastectomy or prophylactic elimination of ovaries are once in a while finished.
Prostatic: of prostate, prostatic most cancers
Prostate-unique antigen (PSA): this is a protein produced by means of the prostate gland. The stage of PSA in the blood may be accelerated in guys who’ve prostate cancer or enlarged prostate.
Pulmonary: of lung
Radiation oncologist: a doctor who focuses on the use of radiation to deal with cancer.
Radiation physicist: someone who makes certain that the radiation system gives you the proper amount of radiation to the suitable web page within the frame.
Radiation therapist: a health professional who offers radiation remedy.
Radiofrequency ablation: a process that uses radio waves to the warmth and wrecks strange and most cancers cells.
Recurrent cancer: most cancers that have come returned after remedy or after being undetectable for a period of time. The most cancers are said to have recurred.
Refractory most cancers or resistant cancer: most cancers that do not respond to treatment.
Regimen: it is a remedy plan in which the dosage, the schedule and the length of remedy are particular.
Relative survival rate: it’s miles a predicted wide variety that compares the chances that someone with most cancers will survive after the analysis or remedy of the most cancers with folks that do not have the most cancers. It is commonly calculated in phrases of 2, five or 10 years. For example, the 5-year relative survival fee for colorectal most cancers in America, if detected and treated early, is 90%.
Remission: this indicates the disappearance of or lower in signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms of most cancers. The most cancers are stated to be in complete remission while there are not any signs and symptoms and symptoms of most cancers; it’s far in partial remission if some signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared.
Renal: of kidney, renal cancer
Resection: elimination of component or all of an organ.
Risk issue: a threat component is something that increases the threat of growing cancer. For instance, smoking is a danger component for plenty cancers.
Screening: checking for illnesses whilst there are no signs and symptoms of cancer. Examples of cancer screening tests consist of PAP tests, mammogram, and colonoscopy.
Sentinel lymph node: it is the primary lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the number one tumor.
Staging of cancer: that is doing examinations and assessments to find out the volume of most cancers in the frame and additionally whether or not cancer has spread to different components of the body. Staging most cancers facilitates to offer a pleasant remedy to the affected person.
Stem mobile: a cellular from which different sorts of cells develop. For instance, pink blood cells develop from blood-forming stem cells.
Stent: it’s miles a device this is positioned in a body shape to maintain it open. For example, a stent may be inserted into the bile duct if it’s far blocked by using cancer of the gallbladder.
Stoma: this is a gap made surgically from an area in the frame to the out of doors. For example, colostomy has a stoma inside the abdominal wall.
Surgical menopause: a woman stops to have menstrual duration following the elimination of her ovaries. This is visible in operations on cancers of ovaries or uterus.
Surgical oncologist: a physician who performs surgical processes in most cancers sufferers.
Systemic chemotherapy: treatment of most cancers with chemotherapy capsules that journey through the bloodstream and attain cells all around the body.
Targeted therapy: a kind of most cancers remedy that makes use of capsules or different materials to discover and assault particular cancer cells.
Testicular: of testis, testicular most cancers
Thermotherapy: treatment of disorder the usage of heat.
Topical treatment: drugs that are carried out on the floor of the frame, as an example, Aldara cream is carried out topically on the skin to deal with basal cellular most cancers.
Ulcer: that is a spoil at the pores and skin or in the lining of an organ. For example, an ulcer at the face may be a sign of basal cell carcinoma.
Urethral: of urethra, urethral discharge
Uterine: of uterus, uterine most cancers
Urologic oncologist: a health practitioner who makes a specialty of treating cancers of the urinary system.
Vaginal of vagina, vaginal cancer
Visceral: of the viscera, viscera mean internal organs. Visceral pain is pain coming
Vulval or vulvar: of vulva, vulval pr vulvar most cancers
Wart: a raised growth on the surface of the pores and skin or different organs.
Watchful ready: This entails carefully watching a patient’s circumstance but no longer giving any active treatment. This is utilized in sure cancers like prostate or myeloma in which cancer progresses very slowly.
Wedge resection: this is a surgical treatment where a triangular piece of tissue is removed for you to treat cancer.
If you would really like to recognise more about cancer inclusive of symptoms, signs and symptoms, prognosis, treatment, observe-up and different most cancers-associated troubles like circle of relatives tumors, sexuality, most cancers in being pregnant, youngsters and HIV sufferers, palliative care, mental troubles, and prevention and screening of tumors, please go to ‘Do I Have Cancer? ‘. This 270 pages eBook presents a complete package deal of facts on cancer that is guaranteed to provide sufficient data on any problem associated with malignant tumors. The subsequent article in this series is ‘Symptoms of Cancer’
Dr. Naresh Parajuli
MBBS MPH MM FRACGP
Originally posted 2017-09-21 19:14:20.